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(PSYCHIATRIC TIMES) - Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic, impairing and highly comorbid psychiatric condition afflicting an estimated 2.1% to 3.1% of the U.S. population during any given 12-month period (Grant et al., 2005; Kessler et al., 2005). Although historically neglected relative to other anxiety disorders, recent years have witnessed increasing attention and interest in the nature and treatment of GAD. A number of factors have contributed to these developments including elimination of GAD's status as a residual category in the DSM-III-R and several empirically based refinements in the diagnostic criteria for GAD. Among the most consequential of these revisions has been the designation of uncontrollable worry (apprehensive expectation) as the hallmark feature of the disorder and the specification of six key associated symptoms, primarily centering on motor tension (e.g., muscle tension, aches or soreness, restlessness) and vigilance (e.g., feeling keyed up or on edge, difficulty concentrating).

As currently defined in the DSM-IV-TR, a diagnosis of GAD involves excessive anxiety and worry about a number of events or activities, which occur more days than not for at least six months. The worrying is difficult to control, and the individual experiences three or more associated symptoms, including restlessness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension and sleep disturbance. The focus of worry is not on a situation that could be more parsimoniously subsumed under another anxiety disorder (e.g., fear of embarrassment or humiliation in social situations, as in social anxiety disorder). Additionally, there must be evidence of clinically significant functional impairment.

Given its prevalence and associated impairment, the significant burden imposed on health care resources, accurate assessment of GAD and its severity by mental health and primary care clinicians is an increasingly important goal. Reliable diagnosis and assessment of disorder severity can guide the nature, frequency and duration of therapeutic interventions. Moreover, accurate assessment of initial disorder severity provides a benchmark from which ongoing evaluation of treatment effectiveness can proceed.
Assessing Severity in GAD

Assessing the severity of GAD can be done quantitatively (e.g., a 0-10 rating scale), qualitatively (e.g., categorical classifications such as mild, moderate or severe), or with some combination of these approaches. It should apply to relevant domains (e.g., worry, associated symptoms, subjective distress, impairment in role-functioning). In the recent National Comorbidity Survey-Replication study, severity of 12-month GAD cases was evaluated among a large representative community sample (Kessler et al., 2005). Findings revealed that 32.3% of individuals with GAD were classified as serious, 44.6% of cases as moderate and 23.1% as mild, with severity defined by the consequences of GAD in several domains of functioning. Serious cases were defined by: a recent suicide attempt; substantial work limitation; substance dependence with serious role impairment; or 30 or more days out of role in the year. Moderate cases were defined by: a suicide gesture, plan or ideation; substance dependence without serious role impairment; and moderate work limitation or moderate role impairment. Disorders not meeting the criteria for serious or moderate severity were classified as mild.

A complementary way to assess the severity of GAD is to focus on the specific symptoms constituting the disorder. A number of psychometrically sound instruments designed toward this end have been reported in the anxiety disorder and GAD research literature (Table 1). (For more comprehensive reviews see Roemer and Medaglia [2001] and Turk et al. [2004]).

For full article, please visit:
http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/anxiety/article/10168/46946

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